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Francine Blau

Frances Perkins Professor


Francine D. Blau is Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Professor of Economics at Cornell University, a Research Associate of the NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research), and a Research Fellow of IZA (the Institute for the Study of Labor).
She received her Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University and her BS from the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. Before returning to Cornell in 1994, she was on the faculty at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.


  • Economics


Journal Articles

  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. . The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Sources, Journal of Economic Literature . 
  • Francine Blau. 2015. Immigrants and Gender Roles: Assimilation vs. Culture, IZA Journal of Migration . 4:21.(DOI:10.1186/s40176-015-0048-5)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2013. Female Labor Supply: Why is the US Falling Behind?, American Economic Review . 103(3):251-256.
  • Francine Blau, Peter Brummund, Albert Yung-Hsu Liu. 2013. Erratum to: Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender 1970-2009: Adjusting for the Impact of Changes in the Occupational Coding System, Demography . 50(2):493-94.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2013. The Feasibility and Importance of Adding Measures of Actual Experience to Cross-Sectional Data Collection, Journal of Labor Economics . 31(2):S17-S58.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn, Albert Liu, Kerry Papps. 2013. The Transmission of Women’s Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation Across Immigrant Generations, Journal of Population Economics . 26(2):405-435.
  • Francine Blau, Peter Brummund, Albert Yung-Hsu Liu. 2013. Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender 1980-2009: Adjusting for the Impact of Changes in the Occupational Coding System, Demography . 50(2):471-492.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn, Kerry Papps. 2011. Gender, Source Country Characteristics and Labor Market Assimilation Among Immigrants: 1980-2000, Review of Economics and Statistics . 93(1):43-58.
  • Francine Blau, Janet M Curie, Rachel T Croson, Donna K Ginther. 2010. Can Mentoring Help Female Assistant Professors? Interim Results from a Randomized Trial, American Economic Review . 100(2):348-52.
  • Giuseppe Bertola, Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2007. Labor Market Institutions and Demographic Employment Patterns, Journal of Population Economics . 20(4):833-867.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2007. Changes in the Labor Supply Behavior of Married Women: 1980-2000, Journal of Labor Economics . 25(3):393-438.
  • Francine Blau, Jed Devaro. 2007. New Evidence on Gender Differences in Promotion Rates: An Empirical Analysis of a Sample of New Hires, Industrial Relations Journal . 46(3):511-550.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2007. The Gender Pay Gap, Economists' Voice . 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2007. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can?, Academy of Management Perspectives . 21:7-23.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2006. The US Gender Pay Gap in the 1990s: Slowing Convergence, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 60(1):45-66.
  • Francine Blau. 2006. Annual Report of the American Economic Association Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession, American Economic Review . 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2005. Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher US Wage Inequality?, Review of Economics and Statistics . 87(1):184-193.
  • Francine Blau, Anne E Winkler. 2005. Does Affirmative Action Work?, Regional Review/The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston . 
  • Francine Blau. 2004. The Market for New Ph.D. Economists in 2002: Comment, American Economic Review . 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn, Jane Waldfogel. 2004. The Impact of Welfare Benefits on Single Motherhood and Headship of Young Women, Journal of Human Resources . 39(2):382-404.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn, J Moriarty, A Souza. 2003. The Role of the Family in Immigrants’ Labor-Market Activity: An Evaluation of Alternative Explanations: Comment, American Economic Review . 93(1).
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2003. Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap, Journal of Labor Economics . 21(1):106-144.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2002. Reply to Berndt Keller and to David Marsden, Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal . 23(4):1077-1081.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2001. The Gender Pay Gap, NBER Reporter . 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2000. Gender Differences in Pay, Journal of Economic Perspectives . 14(4):75-99.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn, Jane Waldfogel. 2000. Understanding Young Women's Marriage Decisions: The Role of Labor and Marriage Market Conditions, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 53(4):624-647.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1999. Analyzing the Gender Pay Gap, Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance . (special issue 1999):625-646.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1999. Institutions and Laws in the Labor Market, Handbook of Labor Economics . 5(3A):1399-1462.
  • Francine Blau. 1998. The Changing Labor Market for Women, Perspectives on Work . 1(3):39-42.
  • Francine Blau, Patricia Simpson, Deborah Anderson. 1998. Continuing Progress? Trends in Occupational Segregation Over the 1970s and 1980s, Feminist Economics . 4(3):29-71.
  • Francine Blau. 1998. Trends in the Well-being of American Women, 1970-1995, Journal of Economic Literature . 36(1):112-165.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1997. Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in the 1980s, Journal of Labor Economics . 15(1):1-42.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1996. Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison, Economica . 63(250):S29-S62.
  • Francine Blau. 1996. Symposium on Primary and Secondary Education: Introduction, Journal of Economic Perspectives . 10(4):3-8.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1996. International Differences in Male Wage Inequality, Journal of Political Economy . 104(4):791-837.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1994. Rising Wage Inequality and the U.S. Gender Gap, American Economic Review . 84(2):23-33.
  • Francine Blau. 1993. Gender and Economic Outcomes: The Role of Wage Structure, Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations . 73-92.
  • Francine Blau, Marianne Ferber. 1992. Comparable Worth, Classrooms and Lunchrooms: A Journal for Teachers of Economics . 4-12.
  • Francine Blau, Adam Grossberg. 1992. Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development, Review of Economics and Statistics . 74(3):474-481.
  • Francine Blau, Andrea H Beller. 1992. Black-White Earnings Over the 1970s and 1980s: Gender Differences in Trends, Review of Economics and Statistics . 74(2):276-286.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1992. The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons, American Economic Review . 533-538.
  • Francine Blau. 1992. Research Summaries: Gender and Economic Outcomes, NBER Reporter . 4-7.
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber. 1991. Career Plans and Expectations of Young Women and Men: The Earnings Gap and Labor Force Participation, Journal of Human Resources . 26(4):581-607.
  • Francine Blau, Adam J Grossberg. 1991. Wage and Employment Uncertainty and the Growth of Married Women's Labor Force Participation, Economic Inquiry . 678-695.
  • Francine Blau, John W Graham. 1990. Black/White Differences in Wealth and Asset Composition, Quarterly Journal of Economics . 105(2):321-339.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1989. A Model of Joint Wage and Hiring Discrimination, Research in Labor Economics . 157-205.
  • Francine Blau, Andrea H Beller. 1988. Trends in Earnings Differentials by Gender: 1971-1981, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 41(4):513-529.
  • Francine Blau. 1988. Trends in Earnings of Women and Minorities: Discussion by the Authors, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 41(4):547-549.
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber. 1987. Discrimination: Evidence from the United States, American Economic Review . 316-320.
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber. 1985. Women in the Labor Market: The Last Twenty Years, Women and Work . 1
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1985. On Estimating Discrimination in the Economy: Comment, Southern Economic Journal . 51(4):221-226.
  • Francine Blau. 1984. The Use of Transfer Payments by Immigrants, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 37:222-239.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1983. Unionism, Seniority and Turnover, Industrial Relations . 22:362-373.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1983. Job Search and Unionized Employment, Economic Inquiry . 21:412-430.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1981. Race and Sex Differences in Quits by Young Workers, Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 34:563-577.
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1981. Causes and Consequences of Layoffs, Economic Inquiry . 20:270-296.
  • Francine Blau. 1981. On the Role of Values in Feminist Scholarship, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society . 6:538-540.
  • Francine Blau. 1980. Immigration and Labor Earnings in Early Twentieth Century America, Research in Population Economics . 2:21-41.
  • Francine Blau. 1979. Youth and Jobs: Participation and Unemployment Rates, Youth and Society . 10:32-52.
  • Francine Blau, Wallace Hendricks. 1979. Occupational Segregation by Sex: Trends and Prospects, Journal of Human Resources . 14:197-210.
  • Francine Blau. 1976. Comment on Mueller's 'The Economic Determinants of Volunteer Work by Women', Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society . 2:251-254.
  • Francine Blau, Carol Jusenius. 1976. Economists' Approaches to Sex Segregation in the Labor Market: An Appraisal, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society . 1(2):181-199.
  • Francine Blau. 1972. 'Women's Place' in the Labor Market, American Economic Review . 62:161-166.


  • Francine Blau, Christopher Mackie. 2016. in The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration. Washington DC: National Academies Press, 2016. (Accepted)
  • Francine Blau. 2012. Gender, Inequality, and Wages . Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press , 2012. 
  • Francine Blau, Mary C Brinton, David B Grusky. 2006. The Declining Significance of Gender? (co-editor). New York NY, United States: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006. Francine Blau, Mary C Brinton, David B Grusky. (296)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2002. At Home and Abroad: US Labor Market Performance in International Perspective. New York NY, United States: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1996. Wage Inequality: International Comparisons of Its Sources. Washington, DC, United States: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1996. 
  • Francine Blau. 1977. Equal Pay in the Office. Lexington MA, United States: Lexington Books, 1977. (158)
  • Francine Blau, Adele Simmons, Ann Freedman, Margaret Dunkle. 1975. Exploitation from 9 to 5: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Women and Employment. Lexington MA, United States: Lexington Books, 1975. (200pp)


  • Francine Blau, Anne E Winkler. . The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, (450)(Accepted)
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A. Ferber, Anne E. Winkler. 2014. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Pearson, 2014. 
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber, Anne E Winkler. 2010. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States: Prentice-Hall/Pearson, 2010. (428)

Book Chapters

  • Francine Blau, Anne E. Winkler. . "Women, Men, and Family". Oxford/UK: Oxford University Press, Susan Averett, Saul Hoffman, and Laura Argys. (Revising to Resubmit)
  • Francine Blau. 2015. Gender, Economics of. in International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Science. Elsevier, 2015. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2015. Immigration and the Distribution of Incomes. in Handbook of the Economics of International Migration. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2015. Barry R. Chiswick and Paul W. Miller. (793-843)
  • Francine Blau. 2012. The Sources of the Gender Pay Gap. in The New Gilded Age: The Critical Inequality Debates of our Time. Stanford CA, United States: Stanford University Press, 2012. David B. Grusky and Tamar Kricheli-Katz. 
  • Francine Blau, Anne E Winkler. 2011. Women and Men in the Economy. in International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics. United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2011. KimMarie McGoldrick and Gail M. Hoyt. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2009. Inequality and Earnings Distribution. in Oxford Handbook on Economic Inequality . Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2009. Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan, and Timothy M. Smeeding. (177-203)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2008. Women's Work and Wages. in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. New York NY, United States: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Steven Durlauf, Lawrence Blume. (762-772)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2007. Gender and Assimilation among Mexican Americans. in Mexican Immigration. Chicago IL, United States: University of Chicago Press, 2007. George Borjas. (57-106)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2006. The Gender Pay Gap: Going, Going, ... But Not Gone. in The Declining Significance of Gender?. New York NY, United States: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006. Francine Blau, Mary C Brinton, David B Grusky. (37-66)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2004. Collective Bargaining, Relative Wages and Employment: International Microeconomic Evidence. in Changing Role of Unions: New Forms of Representation. Armonk NY, United States: M.E. Sharpe, 2004. Phanindra V Wunnava. (169-228)
  • Francine Blau, Giuseppe Bertola, Lawrence Kahn. 2001. Comparative Analysis of Labor-Market Outcomes: Lessons for the United States from International Long-Run Evidence. in The Roaring Nineties. New York NY, United States: Russell Sage: Century Foundation Press, 2001. Alan Krueger, Robert Solow. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 2000. Gender and Youth Employment Outcomes: The US and West Germany, 1984-91. in Youth Unemployment and Employment in Advanced Countries. University of Chicago Press, 2000. David Blanchflower, Richard Freeman. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1999. Institutions and Laws in the Labor Market. in Handbook of Labor Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1999. O Ashenfelter, D Card. 
  • Francine Blau. 1998. On Becoming and Being an Economist. in Passion and Craft: Economists At Work. Ann Arbor MI, United States: University of Michigan Press, 1998. Michael Szenberg. (20-38)
  • Francine Blau. 1998. The Gender Pay Gap. in Women's Work and Wages. London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1998. Christina Jonung, Inga Persson. 
  • Francine Blau. 1996. Alumni Perspective. in The ILR School at Fifty. Ithaca NY, United States: Cornell University, 1996. Robert McKersie, J Gormly Miller, Robert Aronson, Robert Julian. (91-93)
  • Francine Blau. 1996. Comments on 'Child Care: Private Cost or Public Responsibility'. in Individual and Social Responsibility: Child Care, Education, Medical Care, and Long-Term Care in America. Chicago IL, United States: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Victor R Fuchs. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1996. Why Does the U.S. Have Higher Male Wage Inequality? Prices Versus Characteristics. in Comparisons Internationale De Salaires. Paris, France: INSEE, 1996. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1995. The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence. in Differences and Changes in Wage Structures. Chicago IL, United States: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Richard B Freeman, Lawrence F Katz. 
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1993. The Changing Composition of the U.S. Labor Force: Implications for Public Policy. in The Change of Employment Environment and Human Resource Management in U.S. and Japanese Labor Markets. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Institute of Labour, 1993. (163-191)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1992. Race and Gender Pay Differentials. in Research Frontiers in Industrial Relations and Human Resources. Madison WI, United States: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1992. David Lewin, Olivia Mitchell, Peter Sherer. (381-416)
  • Francine Blau. 1992. The Fertility of Immigrant Women: Evidence from High Fertility Source Countries. in Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas. United States: University of Chicago Press, 1992. George J Borjas, Richard B Freeman. (93-133)
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber. 1992. Women's Work, Women's Lives: A Comparative Perspective. in Women's Work and Women's Lives: The Continuing Struggle Worldwide. Boulder CO, United States: Westview Press, 1992. Hilda Kahne, Janet Giele. (28-46)
  • Francine Blau, Anne E Winkler. 1989. Women in the Labor Force: An Overview. in Women: A Feminist Perspective. Palo Alto CA, United States: Mayfield, 1989. Jo Freeman. (265-286)
  • Francine Blau. 1987. Changes in Labor Force Opportunities: An Appraisal. in Ingredients for Women's Employment Policy. SUNY Press, 1987. Christine Bose, Glenna Spitze. (239-243)
  • Francine Blau. 1987. Comments on W. Lee Hansen and Karen Holden, 'Part-time Work and Occupational Segregation'. in Gender in the Work Place. Washington, DC, United States: The Brookings Institution, 1987. Clair Brown, Joseph Pechman. (238-240)
  • Francine Blau. 1987. Gender. in The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economic Theory and Doctrine. Macmillan Press, 1987. John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, Peter Newman. (492-498)
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber. 1987. Women's Earnings and Occupations. in Women and Work: 1986 Industrial Relations Research Association Research Volume. Washington, DC, United States: Bureau of National Affairs, 1987. Karen Koziara, Michael Moscow, Lucretia D Tanner. (37-68)
  • Francine Blau. 1986. Immigration and the U.S. Taxpayer. in Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration. Kalamazoo MI, United States: W.E. Upjohn Institute, 1986. Susan Pozo. (89-110)
  • Francine Blau. 1984. Discrimination Against Women: Theory and Evidence. in Labor Economics: Modern Views. Boston MA, United States: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1984. William A Darity, Jr. (53-89)
  • Francine Blau. 1984. Occupational Segregation and Labor Market Discrimination: A Critical Review. in Sex Segregation in the Workplace: Trends, Explanations, Remedies. Washington, DC, United States: National Academy Press, 1984. Barbara Reskin. (117-143)
  • Francine Blau. 1978. The Data on Women Workers: Past, Present, and Future. in Women and Their Work. Palo Alto CA, United States: Mayfield, 1978. Ann Stromberg, Shirley Harkness. (29-62)
  • Francine Blau. 1978. The Impact of the Unemployment Rate on Labor Force Entries and Exits. in Women's Changing Roles at Home and on the Job. Washington, DC, United States: National Commission on Manpower Policy Special Report No. 26, 1978. Isabel Sawhill. (263-288)
  • Francine Blau. 1976. Longitudinal Patterns of Female Labor Force Participation. in Dual Careers - A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Women. Washington, DC, United States: U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Research Monograph No. 21, 1976. Herbert S Parnes. (27-55)
  • Francine Blau. 1975. Sex Segregation of Workers by Enterprise in Clerical Occupations. in Labor Market Segmentation. Lexington MA, United States: Lexington Books, 1975. Richard C Edwards, Michael Reich, David M Gordon. (257-278)
  • Francine Blau, Richard Weisskoff. 1972. The Political Economy of the (Brazilian) Education System. in Contemporary Brazil: Issues in Economic and Political Development. New York NY, United States: Praeger, 1972. H Jon Rosenbaum, William Tyler. (371-398)

Book Sections

  • Francine Blau, Deborah Anderson. 2001. Frances Perkins. in The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2001. Paul S Boyer. (588)
  • Francine Blau, Ronald Ehrenberg. 1997. Introduction. in Gender and Family Issues in the Workplace. New York NY, United States: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997. Francine Blau, Ronald G Ehrenberg. 
  • Francine Blau. 1984. Concluding Remarks. in Sex Segregation in the Workplace: Trends, Explanations, Remedies. Washington, DC, United States: National Academy Press, 1984. Barbara Reskin. (310-313)

Book Reviews

  • Francine Blau. 1992. Review of 'Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market' edited by John M Abowd and Richard B Freeman. in Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 1992. (201-203)
  • Francine Blau. 1991. Review of 'Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women' by Claudia Goldin. in Journal of Political Economy. 1991. (1332-1335)
  • Francine Blau. 1983. Review of 'A Challenge to Social Security' edited by Richard V Burkhauser and Karen C Holden. in Journal of Economic Literature. New York NY, United States: Academic Press, 1983. (1041-1042)
  • Francine Blau. 1981. Review of 'Changing Places: Men and Women in Transitional Occupations' by Carol Tropp Schreiber. in Journal of Economic Literature. 1981. (158-159)
  • Francine Blau. 1977. Review of 'Equal Employment Opportunity and the AT&T Case' edited by Phyllis Wallace. in Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 1977. (118-119)
  • Francine Blau. 1977. Review of 'Sex, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor' edited by Cynthia B Lloyd. in Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 1977. (254-255)
  • Francine Blau. 1975. Review of 'The American Woman: Her Changing Social, Economic, and Political Role, 1920-1970' by William Chafe. in Journal of Human Resources. 1975. (548-550)

Conference Proceedings

  • Francine Blau, Giuseppe Bertola, Lawrence Kahn. 2003. Collective Bargaining Institutions and Demographic Employment Patterns. in IRRA Proceedings 55th Annual Meeting. 2003. 
  • Francine Blau. 1998. Widening Differentials by Skill: 'An American Dilemma'. in IRRA Proceedings 50th Annual Meeting. 1998. (1-10)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1997. Youth Employment in the US and West Germany, 1984-91. in IRRA Proceedings 49th Annual Meeting. Madison WI, United States: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1997. (87-97)
  • Francine Blau, Lawrence Kahn. 1996. International Differences in Male Wage Inequality: Institutions Versus Market Forces. in Comparaisons de Salaires Internationales: Actes du Colloque des 1er et 2 Février 1996. Paris, France: INSEE, 1996. (168-181)
  • Francine Blau, Marianne A Ferber. 1987. Women's Progress in the Labor Market: Should we Rest on Our Laurels?. in Papers and Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Annual Meeting. Industrial Relations Research Association, 1987. (70-76)
  • Francine Blau. 1978. Youth Participation Rates and the Availability of Jobs. in Supplementary Papers from the Conference on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington, DC, United States: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, 1978. Naomi Berger Davidson. (56-76)